Pedosphere 33(3): 385--406, 2023
ISSN 1002-0160/CN 32-1315/P
©2023 Soil Science Society of China
Published by Elsevier B.V. and Science Press
Recent advances in the chemistry of nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium as fertilizers in soil: A review
Sharhabil Musa YAHAYA1,2, Aliyu Ahmad MAHMUD3, Mustapha ABDULLAHI4, Abdurrashid HARUNA5,6
1 Department of Soil Science, Faculty of Agriculture/Institute for Agricultural Research, Ahmadu Bello University, Private Mail Bag(P.M.B.)1044, Zaria 810107(Nigeria)
2 Faculty of Agriculture, Banat's University of Agricultural Sciences and Veterinary Medicine "King Michael I of Romania" from Timisoara, Timisoara 300645(Romania)
3 Faculty of Agriculture and Veterinary Science, Mewar University, Chittorgarh, Gangrar 312901(India)
4 Department of Pure and Applied Chemistry, Faculty of Sciences, Kaduna State University, Tafawa Balewa Way, P.M.B. 2339, Kaduna 741102(Nigeria)
5 Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Physical Sciences, Ahmadu Bello University, P.M.B. 1044, Zaria 810107(Nigeria)
6 Department of Fundamental and Applied Sciences, Universiti Teknologi Petronas, Perak Darul Ridzuan, Seri Iskandar 32610(Malaysia)
Corresponding Author:Sharhabil Musa YAHAYA
      The advent of civilization has made humans dependent on plants for food and medicine, leading to the intensification of agricultural production. The intense cultivation of crops has resulted in the depletion of available nutrients from soil, thereby demanding the application of excess nutrients to soil to improve yield. Thus, mineral fertilizer discovery and application have, in many ways, contributed greatly to meeting global food demands. However, aside from the positive effects of mineral fertilizers, their excessive application to soil produces large amounts of pollutants that affect environmental sustainability. This necessitates the study of the major mineral fertilizer elements (nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P), and potassium (K)), the forms in which they are applied to soil, and their chemistry/reactions in soil. Here, we reviewed the forms of different N, P, and K mineral fertilizers to provide current knowledge on their constituents, the chemistry of N, P, and K in soil to understand the reactions they undertake in soil, the efficient methods of fertilizer application for environmental sustainability, the effects of mineral fertilizer loss to the environment, and improved fertilization technologies for environmental sustainability. Nanofertilizers are a promising technology for sustainable agricultural production and are discussed in detail in this review.
Key Words:  biofertilizer,environmental sustainability,fertilizer application method,fertilizer form,mineral fertilizer,nanofertilizer,nutrient loss,nutrient use efficiency
Citation: Yahaya S M, Mahmud A A, Abdullahi M, Haruna A. 2023. Recent advances in the chemistry of nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium as fertilizers in soil: A review. Pedosphere. 33(3): 385-406.
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