Pedosphere 32(6): 812--822, 2022
ISSN 1002-0160/CN 32-1315/P
©2022 Soil Science Society of China
Published by Elsevier B.V. and Science Press
Spectral indices measured with proximal sensing using canopy reflectance sensor, chlorophyll meter and leaf color chart for in-season grain yield prediction of basmati rice
1Department of Soil Science, Punjab Agricultural University, Ludhiana 141004(India)
2Shree Guru Gobind Singh Tricentenary(SGT) University, Chandu-Budhera Road, Gurugram, Haryana 122505(India)
3College of Agriculture, Punjab Agricultural University, Ludhiana 141004(India)
Corresponding Author:VARINDERPAL-SINGH
      A number of optical sensing tools are now available and can potentially be used for refining need-based fertilizer nitrogen (N) topdressing decisions. Algorithms for estimating field-specific fertilizer N needs are based on predictions of yield made while the crops are still growing in the field. The present study was conducted to establish and validate yield prediction models using spectral indices measured with proximal sensing using GreenSeeker canopy reflectance sensor, soil and plant analyzer development (SPAD) chlorophyll meter, and two different types of leaf color charts (LCCs) for five basmati rice genotypes across different growth stages. Regression analysis was performed using normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) recorded with GreenSeeker sensor and leaf greenness indices measured with SPAD meter and LCCs developed by Punjab Agricultural University, Ludhiana (India) (PAU-LCC) and the International Rice Research Institute, Philippines (IRRI-LCC). The exponential relationship between NDVI and grain yield exhibited the highest coefficient of determination (R2) and minimum normalized root mean square error (NRMSE) at panicle initiation stage and explained 38.3%-76.4% variation in yield using genotype-specific models. Spectral indices pooled for different genotypes were closely related to grain yield at all growth stages and explained 53.4%-57.2% variation in grain yield. Normalizing different spectral indices with cumulative growing degree days (CGDD) decreased the accuracy of yield prediction. Normalization with days after transplanting (DAT), however, did not reduce or improve the predictability of yield. The ability of each model to predict grain yield was validated with an independent dataset collected from two experiments conducted at different sites with a range of fertilizer N doses. The NDVI-based genotype-specific models exhibited a robust linear correlation (R2=0.77, NRMSE=7.37%, n=180) between observed and predicted grain yields only at 35 DAT (i.e., panicle initiation stage), while the SPAD, PAU-LCC, and IRRI-LCC consistently provided reliable predictions (with respective R2 of 0.63, 0.60, and 0.53 and NRMSE of 10%, 10%, and 13.6%) even with genotype invariant models with 900 data points obtained at different growth stages. The study revealed that unnormalized values of spectral indices, namely NDVI, SPAD, PAU-LCC, and IRRI-LCC, can be satisfactorily used for in-season estimation of grain yield for basmati rice. As LCCs are very economical compared with chlorophyll meters and canopy reflectance sensors, they can be preferably used by small farmers in developing countries.
Key Words:  GreenSeeker canopy reflectance sensor,IRRI-LCC,need-based nutrient management,nitrogen,optical sensing tools,PAU-LCC,SPAD meter
Citation: Varinderpal-Singh, Kunal, Mehtab-Singh, Bijay-Singh. 2022. Spectral indices measured with proximal sensing using canopy reflectance sensor, chlorophyll meter and leaf color chart for in-season grain yield prediction of basmati rice. Pedosphere. 32(6): 812-822.
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