Pedosphere 32(4): 649--659, 2022
ISSN 1002-0160/CN 32-1315/P
©2022 Soil Science Society of China
Published by Elsevier B.V. and Science Press
Effects of soil amendments, foliar sprayings of silicon and selenium and their combinations on the reduction of cadmium accumulation in rice
Demin LI1,2, Hongyan LIU1, Min GAO2,3, Jing ZHOU2,3,4, Jun ZHOU2,4
1College of Agriculture, Guizhou University, Guiyang 550025 (China)
2Key Laboratory of Soil Environment and Pollution Remediation, Institute of Soil Science, Chinese Academy Sciences, Nanjing 210008 (China)
3University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China)
4National Engineering and Technology Research Center for Red Soil Improvement, Red Soil Ecological Experiment Station, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Liujiazhan Plantation, Yingtan 335211 (China)
ABSTRACT
      Agricultural soil contamination by cadmium (Cd) is becoming one of the most serious environmental issues and public concerns. In this study, factorial arrangements of treatments were designed to explore the effects of two soil amendments, sodium sulfide-biofuel ash (SSBA) and lime (0.1%), and three foliar applications, silicon (Si, 2.5 mmol L-1), selenium (Se, 40 mg L-1), and their combination (SS), on Cd reduction in rice (Oryza sativa L.) in a pot experiment, which were then verified in a field experiment. Compared with the control without amendment but with spraying of deionized water, both SSBA and lime significantly reduced concentrations of CaCl2-extractable Cd in soil by 30%-39% and 31%-40% and Cd in brown rice by 44%-63% and 53%-72% in the pot and field experiments, respectively. Foliar Si, Se, and SS applications significantly reduced Cd accumulation in brown rice by 62%-64%, 72%-83%, and 39%-73%, respectively, increased rice grain yield, and improved antioxidant enzyme activities in rice leaves but with different trends in the pot and field experiments. Combinations of SSBA and lime with Si, Se, and SS had a non-significant synergistic effect on Cd reduction in brown rice compared to only foliar spraying or soil amendment in both pot and field experiments, although SSBA + Se and SSBA + Si reduced Cd concentration in brown rice by 16%-34% and 14%-24% compared to only foliar Si and Se and soil SSBA applications, respectively. Soil lime application and foliar Si spraying were the most cost-effective strategies to reduce Cd accumulation in brown rice in the field and pot experiments, respectively. Although soil amendments and foliar treatments were individually effective, their combinations failed to generate a significant synergistic reduction of Cd concentration in brown rice.
Key Words:  antioxidant enzyme activity,bioconcentration factor,cadmium bioavailability,rice yield,soil contamination,synergistic effect,translocation factor
Citation: Li D M, Liu H Y, Gao M, Zhou J, Zhou J. 2022. Effects of soil amendments, foliar sprayings of silicon and selenium and their combinations on the reduction of cadmium accumulation in rice. Pedosphere. 32(4): 649-659.
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