Pedosphere 31(6): 882--891, 2021
ISSN 1002-0160/CN 32-1315/P
©2021 Soil Science Society of China
Published by Elsevier B.V. and Science Press
Soil chronosequence and biosequence on old lake sediments of the Burdur Lake in Turkey
Gafur GOZUKARA1,2, Yakun ZHANG2, Alfred E. HARTEMINK2, Sevda ALTUNBAS3, Mustafa SARI3
1Department of Soil Science and Plant Nutrition, Eskisehir Osmangazi University, Eskisehir 26160 (Turkey)
2Department of Soil Science, FD Hole Soils Lab, 1525 Observatory Drive, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison 53706 (USA)
3Department of Soil Science and Plant Nutrition, Akdeniz University, Antalya 07059 (Turkey)
Corresponding Author:Gafur GOZUKARA
ABSTRACT
      The Burdur Lake is located in the southwest of Turkey, and its area has decreased by 40% from 211 km2 in 1975 to 126 km2 in 2019. In this study, we investigated how the soil has changed in the lacustrine material. Three soil profiles were sampled from the former lakebed (chronosequence profiles: P1, 2007; P2, 1994; and P3, 1975), and three soil profiles under different land use types (biosequence profiles: P4, native forest vegetation; P5, agriculture; and P6, lakebed) were sampled. The chronosequence and biosequence soil profiles represented various distances from the Burdur Lake and showed different stages of lacustrine evolution. Soil electrical conductivity (EC; 18.1 to 0.4 dS m-1), exchangeable Na+ (34.7 to 1.4 cmol kg-1) and K+ (0.61 to 0.56 cmol kg-1), and water-soluble Cl- (70.3 to 2.1 cmol L-1) and SO42- (275.9 to 25.0 cmol L-1) decreased with increasing distance from the Burdur Lake, whereas the A horizon thickness (10 to 48 cm), structure formation (0 to 48 cm), gleization-oxidation depth (0 to 79 cm), and montmorillonite and organic matter (OM; 25.9 to 46.0 g kg-1) contents increased in the chronosequence soil profiles. The formation of P3 in the chronosequence and P5 in the biosequence soil profiles increased due to longer exposure to pedogenic processes (time, land use, vegetation, etc.). Changes in EC, exchangeable cation (Na+ and K+) and water-soluble anion (Cl- and SO42-) concentrations of the salt-enriched horizon, OM, gleization-oxidation depth, A horizon thickness, and structure formation of the chronosequence and biosequence soil profiles (especially the topsoil horizon) were highly related to the distance from the Burdur Lake, time, and land use.
Key Words:  biosequence soil profile,chronosequence soil profile,lacustrine material,lakebed,soil formation
Citation: Gozukara G, Zhang Y, Hartemink A E, Altunbas S, Sari M. 2021. Soil chronosequence and biosequence on old lake sediments of the Burdur Lake in Turkey. Pedosphere. 31(6): 882–891.
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