Pedosphere 31(3): 475--495, 2021
ISSN 1002-0160/CN 32-1315/P
©2021 Soil Science Society of China
Published by Elsevier B.V. and Science Press
Advances in fungal-assisted phytoremediation of heavy metals: A review
Muhammad KHALID1, Saeed UR-RAHMAN2, Danial HASSANI2, Kashif HAYAT1, Pei ZHOU1, Nan HUI1
1Key Laboratory of Urban Agriculture, School of Agriculture and Biology, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240 (China)
2Joint International Research Laboratory of Metabolic & Developmental Sciences, Key Laboratory of Urban Agriculture (South) of Ministry of Agriculture, Plant Biotechnology Research Center, Fudan-SJTU-Nottingham Plant Biotechnology R&D Center, School of Agriculture and Biology, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240 (China)
      Trace metals such as manganese (Mn), copper (Cu), zinc (Zn), and iron (Fe) are essential for many biological processes in plant life cycles. However, in excess, they can be toxic and disrupt plant growth processes, which is economically undesirable for crop production. For this reason, processes such as homeostasis and transport control of these trace metals are of constant interest to scientists studying heavily contaminated habitats. Phytoremediation is a promising cleanup technology for soils polluted with heavy metals. However, this technique has some disadvantages, such as the slow growth rate of metal-accumulating plant species, low bioavailability of heavy metals, and long duration of remediation. Microbial-assisted phytoremediation is a promising strategy for hyperaccumulating, detoxifying, or remediating soil contaminants. Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) are found in association with almost all plants, contributing to their healthy performance and providing resistance against environmental stresses. They colonize plant roots and extend their hyphae to the rhizosphere region, assisting in mineral nutrient uptake and regulation of heavy metal acquisition. Endophytic fungi exist in every healthy plant tissue and provide enormous services to their host plants, including growth enhancement by nutrient acquisition, detoxification of heavy metals, secondary metabolite regulation, and enhancement of abiotic/biotic stress tolerance. The aim of the present work is to review the recent literature regarding the role of AMF and endophytic fungi in plant heavy metal tolerance in terms of its regulation in highly contaminated conditions.
Key Words:  arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi,bioremediation,endophytic fungi,environmental stress,metal tolerance,microbe,plant transporter,soil contaminant
Citation: Khalid M, Ur-Rahman S, Hassani D, Hayat K, Zhou P, Hui N. 2021. Advances in fungal-assisted phytoremediation of heavy metals: A review. Pedosphere. 31(3): 475-495.
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