Pedosphere 31(2): 314--322, 2021
ISSN 1002-0160/CN 32-1315/P
©2021 Soil Science Society of China
Published by Elsevier B.V. and Science Press
Effects of the nitrification inhibitor nitrapyrin and tillage practices on yield-scaled nitrous oxide emission from a maize field in Iran
Azam BORZOUEI1, Ulo MANDER2, Alar TEEMUSK2, Alberto SANZ-COBENA3, Mohammad ZAMAN4, Dong-Gill KIM5, Christoph MULLER6,7, Ali Askary KELESTANIE8, Parvaneh SAYYAD AMIN9, Ebrahim MOGHISEH1, Khadim DAWAR10, Ana Gabriela PÉREZ-CASTILLO11
1Agricultural Research School, Nuclear Science and Technology Research Institute, Karaj 31465-1498(Iran)
2Institute of Ecology and Earth Sciences, University of Tartu, Tartu 51014(Estonia)
3Higher Technical School of Engineering(ESTI), Technical University of Madrid, Madrid 28040(Spain)
4Soil and Water Management&Crop Nutrition, Joint Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations(FAO)/International Atomic Energy Agency(IAEA) Division of Nuclear Techniques in Food&Agriculture, Vienna A-1400(Austria)
5Wondo Genet College of Forestry and Natural Resources, Hawassa University, P. O. Box 128, Shashemene(Ethiopia)
6Department of Plant Ecology, University Giessen, Heinrich-Buff-Ring 26, Giessen D-35392(Germany)
7School of Biology and Environmental Science, University College Dublin, Belfield D04 V1 W8(Ireland)
8Faculty of Agriculture and Natural Resources, University of Gorgan, Gorgan 3158777871(Iran)
9Department of Agronomy and Plant Breeding, College of Agriculture and Natural Resources, University of Tehran, Karaj 1417466191(Iran)
10Department of Soil and Environmental Sciences, Agricultural University Peshawar, Peshawar 25130(Pakistan)
11Center of Environmental Contamination Investigation, University of Costa Rica, Mountains of Oca 1150(Costa Rica)
      Nitrification inhibitors can effectively decrease nitrification rates and nitrous oxide (N2O) emission while increasing crop yield under certain conditions. However, there is no information available on the effects of nitrification inhibitors and tillage practices on N2O emissions from maize cropping in Iran. To study how tillage practices and nitrapyrin (a nitrification inhibitor) affect N2O emission, a split factorial experiment using a completely randomized block design with three replications was carried out in Northeast Iran, which has a cold semiarid climate. Two main plots were created with conventional tillage and minimum tillage levels, and two nitrogen (N) fertilizer (urea) management systems (with and without nitrapyrin application) were created as subplots. Tillage level did not have any significant effect on soil ammonium (NH4+) and nitrate (NO3-) concentrations, cumulative amount and yield-scaled N2O emission, and aboveground biomass of maize, whereas nitrapyrin application showed significant effect. Nitrapyrin application significantly reduced the cumulative amount of N2O emission by 41% and 32% in conventional tillage and minimum tillage practices, respectively. A reduction in soil NO3- concentration by nitrapyrin was also observed. The average yield-scaled N2O emission was 13.6 g N2O-N kg-1 N uptake in both tillage systems without nitrapyrin application and was significantly reduced to 7.9 and 8.2 g N2O-N kg-1 N uptake upon the application of nitrapyrin in minimum tillage and conventional tillage practices, respectively. Additionally, nitrapyrin application increased maize biomass yield by 4% and 13% in the minimum tillage and conventional tillage systems, respectively. Our results indicate that nitrapyrin has a potential role in reducing N2O emission from agricultural systems where urea fertilizers are broadcasted, which is common in Iran due to the practice of traditional farming.
Key Words:  conventional tillage,cumulative emission,minimum tillage,nitrogen use efficiency,N2O flux,soil inorganic nitrogen,urea
Citation: Borzouei A, Mander U, Teemusk A, Sanz-Cobena A, Zaman M, Kim D G, Muller C, Kelestanie A A, Sayyad Amin P, Moghiseh E, Dawar K, Pérez-Castillo A G. 2021. Effects of the nitrification inhibitor nitrapyrin and tillage practices on yield-scaled nitrous oxide emission from a maize field in Iran. Pedosphere. 31(2):314-322.
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