Pedosphere 31(1): 103--115, 2021
ISSN 1002-0160/CN 32-1315/P
©2021 Soil Science Society of China
Published by Elsevier B.V. and Science Press
Soil phosphorus availability and rice phosphorus uptake in paddy fields under various agronomic practices
Bingshen JIANG1,2,3, Jianlin SHEN1, Minghong SUN1,4, Yajun HU1, Wenqian JIANG1,2, Juan WANG1, Yong LI1, Jinshui WU1,2
1Key Laboratory of Agro-ecological Processes in Subtropical Region and Changsha Research Station for Agricultural & Environmental Monitoring, Institute of Subtropical Agriculture, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Changsha 410125(China)
2University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049(China)
3College of Biological and Food Engineering, Huanghuai University, Zhumadian 463000(China)
4College of Resources & Environment, Hunan Agricultural University, Changsha 410128(China)
      Agronomic practices affect soil phosphorus (P) availability, P uptake by plants, and subsequently the efficiency of P use. A field experiment was carried out to investigate the effects of various agronomic practices (straw incorporation, paddy water management, nitrogen (N) fertilizer dose, manure application, and biochar addition) on soil P availability (e.g., soil total P (STP), soil available P (SAP), soil microbial biomass P (SMBP), and rice P uptake as well as P use efficiency (PUE)) over four cropping seasons in a rice-rice cropping system, in subtropical central China. Compared to the non-straw treatment (control, using full dose of chemical N fertilizer), straw incorporation increased SAP and SMBP by 9.3%-18.5% and 15.5%-35.4%, respectively; substituting half the chemical N fertilizer dose with pig manure and the biochar application increased STP, SAP, and SMBP by 10.5%-48.3%, 30.2%-236.0%, and 19.8%-72.4%, respectively, mainly owing to increased soil P and organic carbon inputs; adding a half dose of N and no N input (reduced N treatments) increased STP and SAP by 2.6%-7.5% and 19.8%-33.7%, respectively, due to decreased soil P outputs. Thus, soil P availability was greatly affected by soil P input and use. The continuous flooding water regime without straw addition significantly decreased SMBP by 11.4% compared to corresponding treatments under a mid-season drainage water regime. Total P uptake by rice grains and straws at the harvest stage increased under straw incorporation and under pig manure application, but decreased under the reduced N treatments and under biochar application at a rate of 48 t ha-1, compared to the control. Rice P uptake was significantly positively correlated with rice biomass, and both were positively correlated with N fertilizer application rates, SAP, SMBP, and STP. Phosphorus use efficiency generally increased under straw incorporation but decreased under the reduced N treatments and under the manure application (with excessive P input), compared to the control. These results showed that straw incorporation can be used to increase soil P availability and PUE while decreasing the use of chemical P fertilizers. When substituting chemical fertilizers with pig manure, excess P inputs should be avoided in order to reduce P accumulation in the soil as well as the environmental risks from non-point source pollution.
Key Words:  biochar,manure fertilizer,nutrient management,P use efficiency,paddy soil,straw incorporation,water regime
Citation: Jiang B S, Shen J L, Sun M H, Hu Y J, Jiang W Q, Wang J, Li Y, Wu J S. 2021. Soil phosphorus availability and rice phosphorus uptake in paddy fields under various agronomic practices. Pedosphere. 31(1): 103-115.
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