Pedosphere 29(5): 598--607, 2019
ISSN 1002-0160/CN 32-1315/P
©2019 Soil Science Society of China
Published by Elsevier B.V. and Science Press
Effects of Bentonite, Hydrogel and Biochar Amendments on Soil Hydraulic Properties from Saturation to Oven Dryness
Osama MOHAWESH1,2, Wolfgang DURNER3
1Department of Plant Production, Faculty of Agriculture, Mutah University, Karak 61710(Jordan)
2Division of Environmental Science and Technology, Graduate School of Agriculture, Kyoto University, Kyoto 6110011(Japan)
3Institute of Geoecology, Technical University of Braunschweig, Langer Kamp 19 c, Braunschweig 38106(Germany)
Corresponding Author:Osama MOHAWESH
      Effects of hydrogel, bentonite, and biochar as soil amendments on soil hydraulic properties and improving water availability from saturation to oven dryness were investigated. Soils were mixed with hydrogel (0.10%, 0.25%, and 0.50%), bentonite (0.5%, 1.0%, and 2.5%), and biochar (1.0%, 2.5%, and 5.0%) as soil amendments (weight:weight). Three methods (extended multistep outflow (XMSO), evaporation (EVA), and WP4 dewpoint potentiometer) were used to measure soil hydraulic properties from saturation to oven dryness. The cumulative XMSO results were more uniform across all the applied pressure steps for the amended soils. The EVA exhibited a shorter linear decrease during the first evaporation stage and a lower evaporation rate during the second evaporation stage. The WP4 results also exhibited that soil amendments increased the soil water content of the amended soils at low matric potentials. The results of soil water retention curves revealed that the unamended soil retained less water at any matric potential compared to the amended soils. Soil hydraulic conductivity decreased with increasing amount of soil amendments. The saturated hydraulic conductivity was higher for the unamended soil than the soils amended with 2.5% bentonite, 0.50% hydrogel, and 5.0% biochar by 11, 3, and 18 times, respectively. These results suggested that soil amendments improved soil water retentivity, which confirmed the appropriateness of these soil amendments for potential use in sandy soil improvements. However, field experiments and economical perception studies should be considered for further investigation.
Key Words:  evaporation,extended multistep outflow,soil amendment,soil matric potential,soil moisture,soil water retentivity,water availability,WP4 dewpoint potentiometer
Citation: Mohawesh O, Durner W. 2019. Effects of bentonite, hydrogel and biochar amendments on soil hydraulic properties from saturation to oven dryness. Pedosphere. 29(5): 598-607.
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