Pedosphere 28(5): 697--712, 2018
ISSN 1002-0160/CN 32-1315/P
©2018 Soil Science Society of China
Published by Elsevier B.V. and Science Press
A Review on Genetically Modified Plants Designed to Phytoremediate Polluted Soils: Biochemical Responses and International Regulation
Edgar VÁZQUEZ-NÚÑEZ1, Julian M. PEÑA-CASTRO2, Fabián FERNÁNDEZ-LUQUEÑO3, Eduardo CEJUDO4, Maria G. de la ROSA-ALVAREZ1,5, and Maria C. GARCÍA-CASTAÑEDA6
1Departamento de Ingenierías Química, Electrónica y Biomédica, División de Ciencias e Ingenierías, Universidad de Guanajuato(UG) Campus Léon, Loma del Bosque 103, Léon, Gto. 37150(Mexico)
2Laboratorio de Biotecnología Vegetal, Instituto de Biotecnología, Universidad del Papaloapan, Tuxtepec, Oaxaca 68333(Mexico)
3Programa en Sustentabilidad de los Recursos Naturales y Energía, Cinvestav Saltillo, Industria Metalúrgica 1062, Parque Industrial Saltillo-Ramos-Arizpe, Ramos Arizpe, Coahuila 25900(Mexico)
4CONACYT, Unidad de Ciencias del Agua(UCIA), Centro de Investigación Científica de Yucatán, A. C., Cancún, Quintana Roo 77500(Mexico)
5Center for the Environmental Implications of Nanotechnology, University of California at Los Angeles-University of Texas at El Paso, 500 W University Ave, El Paso 79968(USA)
6CONACYT, Universidad de Guanajuato, Loma del Bosque 103, Léon, Guanajuato 37150(Mexico)
Corresponding Author:Edgar VÁZQUEZ-NÚÑEZ
ABSTRACT
      In recent years, there has been an increasing interest in finding sustainable strategies for the efficient removal of contaminants from soils. The objective of this review is to examine the biochemical principles of specific genetic modifications in plants, their applications in the field for specific contaminants as phytotechnologies, and their international regulation. In addition, the review presents some biological aspects of rhizosphere-related phenomena, the interactions of organic and inorganic pollutants with plants, and the performance of the phytotechnologies across the continents. During the last few decades, at least eight genera of genetically modified plants (GMPs) have been tested and used for soil remediation with outstanding results. Arabidopsis, Nicotiana, and Oryza are the plant genera most widely studied. Specific plant genes such as metal transporters, chelators, metallothioneins, phytochelatins, and oxygenases have been transferred to plants to improve the elimination of contaminants in soil. We discuss some important aspects of gene manipulation and its application for removal of diverse contaminants. A key challenge faced by phytotechnologies is the final disposal of the generated biomass, from a safety aspect. We argue that the commercial success of phytotechnologies depends on the generation of valuable biomass on contaminated land and its use for bioenergy generation. The use of such technologies would promote a broader understanding of the importance of plants, especially GMPs, in the environment and their contribution to environmental sustainability.
Key Words:  bioenergy,contaminants,gene manipulation,phytotechnology,plant-microbe interaction,regulatory policy,soil pollution,soil remediation
Citation: Vázquez-Núñez E, Peña-Castro J M, Fernández-Luqueño F, Cejudo E, de la Rosa-Alvarez M G, García-Castañeda M C. 2018. A review on genetically modified plants designed to phytoremediate polluted soils:Biochemical responses and international regulation. Pedosphere. 28(5):697-712.
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