Pedosphere 28(3): 363--382, 2018
ISSN 1002-0160/CN 32-1315/P
©2018 Soil Science Society of China
Published by Elsevier B.V. and Science Press
Arsenic in Rice Soils and Potential Agronomic Mitigation Strategies to Reduce Arsenic Bioavailability: A Review
Lalith D. B. SURIYAGODA1,2,3, Klaus DITTERT2, Hans LAMBERS3
1Faculty of Agriculture, University of Peradeniya, Peradeniya 20400(Sri Lanka)
2Department of Crop Science, Section of Plant Nutrition and Crop Physiology, University of Göttingen, Göttingen 37075(Germany)
3School of Biological Sciences and Institute of Agriculture, The University of Western Australia, Perth WA 6009(Australia)
Corresponding Author:Lalith D. B. SURIYAGODA
      Soils used for rice (Oryza sativa L.) cultivation in some areas contain high concentrations of arsenic (As) due to irrigation with groundwater containing As and intensive use of agrochemicals or industrial residues containing As. To restrict rice uptake of As in these soils, approaches to reduce As input and bioavailability must be considered. One approach to reduce As input into rice soils or uptake by rice is cultivating rice under aerobic, intermittent flooding, or alternate wetting and drying (AWD) conditions, rather than in submerged soils, or use of irrigation water low in As. For reducing As bioavailability in soil, aerobic or AWD rice culture and application of biochar, sulfur (S), and/or rice polish to soil are promising. Moreover, use of As-hyperaccumulating plant species (e.g., Pteris vittata L.) in rotation or combinations with favourable plant species (e.g., Azolla, Chlorella, or Nannochloropsis species) can also be promoted, in addition to using rice cultivars that are tolerant to As. Though applications of high doses of phosphorus (P), iron (Fe), and silicon (Si) fertilizers have shown promise in many instances, these methods have to be practiced carefully, because negative effects have also been reported, although such incidents are rare. Major factors affecting As speciation and bioavailability in soil are chemical properties such as redox status, pH, and Fe, P, Si, and S concentrations, physical properties such as texture and organic matter, and biological properties such as methylation activity by soil microorganisms. However, as many of these factors interact, long-term examination under field conditions is needed before measures are recommended for and implemented in farmers' fields.
Key Words:  amendment,contaminated soils,health risk,hyperaccumulating plant,remediation,tolerant cultivar,toxicity,water management
Citation: Suriyagoda L D B, Dittert K, Lambers H. 2018. Arsenic in rice soils and potential agronomic mitigation strategies to reduce arsenic bioavailability:A review. Pedosphere. 28(3):363-382.
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