Pedosphere 28(2): 190--208, 2018
ISSN 1002-0160/CN 32-1315/P
©2018 Soil Science Society of China
Published by Elsevier B.V. and Science Press
Microbial Degradation of Organophosphate Pesticides: A Review
Shardendu KUMAR1, Garima KAUSHIK1, Mohd Ashraf DAR1, Surendra NIMESH2, Ulrico Javier LÓPEZ-CHUKEN3, Juan Francisco VILLARREAL-CHIU4
1Department of Environmental Science, School of Earth Sciences, Central University of Rajasthan, Ajmer 305817 (India)
2Department of Biotechnology, School of Life Sciences, Central University of Rajasthan, Ajmer 305817 (India)
3Laboratorio de Investigación en Ciencias Ambientales, Facultad de Ciencias Químicas, Universidad Autónoma de Nuevo León, Nuevo León 66455 (Mexico)
4Laboratorio de Biotecnología, Facultad de Ciencias Químicas, Universidad Autónoma de Nuevo León, Nuevo León 66455 (Mexico)
ABSTRACT
      Pesticides have become an inevitable part of the modern environment as they are widely used in agriculture, household, and public health sectors and, hence, are extensively distributed throughout most ecosystems. Currently, organophosphate pesticides are the most commercially favored group of pesticides, with large application areas all over the world. Depending on their fate, these organophosphorus compounds may become bioavailable for microbial degradation. Environmental microbes, such as Aspergillus, Pseudomonas, Chlorella, and Arthrobacter, are capable of coupling a variety of physical and biochemical mechanisms for the degradation of organophosphate pesticides, including adsorption, hydrolysis of P-O alkyl and aryl bonds, photodegradation, and enzymatic mineralization. Enzymes, such as esterase, diisopropyl fluorophosphatase, phosphotriesterase, somanase, parathion hydrolase, and paraoxonase, have been isolated from microbes to study and understand the catabolic pathways involved in the biotransformation of these xenobiotic compounds. This review highlights various aspects of biodegradation of organophosphate pesticides along with biological and molecular characterization of some organophosphate pesticide-degrading bacteria.
Key Words:  biodegradation,enzymes,insecticide,metabolic pathways,pesticide-degrading bacteria,organophosphorus compound,xenobiotics
Citation: Kumar S, Kaushik G, Dar M A, Nimesh S, López-Chuken U J, Villarreal-Chiu J F. 2018. Microbial degradation of organophosphate pesticides:A review. Pedosphere. 28(2):190-208.
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