Pedosphere 27(3): 588--605, 2017
ISSN 1002-0160/CN 32-1315/P
©2017 Soil Science Society of China
Published by Elsevier B.V. and Science Press
Impact of a phosphate amendment on the environmental availability and phytoavailability of Cd and Pb in moderately and highly carbonated kitchen garden soils
Christophe WATERLOT1, Christelle PRUVOT1, Franck MAROT2,Francis DOUAY1
1Yncréa Hauts-de-France, Laboratoire Génie Civil et géoEnvironnement (LGCgE), 48 boulevard Vauban, Lille cedex 59046 (France)
2 Agence De l'Environnement et de la Ma\^itrise de l'Energie (ADEME), Direction Villes et Territoires Durables, Services Friches Urbaines et Sites Pollués, 20 Avenue du Grésillé, 49009 Angers Cedex (France)
ABSTRACT
      The behaviour of metals mainly depends on soil pH, carbonate contents and contamination level, which should be considered for the management of contaminated soils.In this study, kitchen garden topsoils (0--25 cm) were sampled from the area around three smelters in France, with different Cd and Pb contamination levels.Effect of a phosphate amendment (a mixture of diammonium phosphate and hydroxyapatite) on the environmental availability and phytoavailability of Cd and Pb was evaluated by different chemical extractions and cultivating lettuce ( Lactuca sativa L.), respectively. Changes in the distribution of Cd and Pb were found in most contaminated soils after phosphate amendment. An increase of Cd and Pb in the residual phase was highlighted in almost all carbonated contaminated soils, whereas a decrease of Pb in the exchangeable, water and acid- soluble phase was observed in most contaminated soils with the lowest carbonate contents. The concentrations of extractable Cd and Pb using calcium chloride and acetic and citric acids generally decreased after the soil amendment. Lettuces grown on amended soils were acceptable for human consumption as regard to Pb concentration. In contrast, some lettuces were unacceptable for human consumption, since the concentrations of Cd in the leaves were higher than the European legislation limit. Surprisingly, in carbonated soils with very low concentration of Cd, the Cd concentrations in lettuce reached up to the European legislation limit, making the lettuce unacceptable for human consumption. Our study highlighted the fact that the total metal concentration in soils does not always allow to predict the metal accumulation in the edible parts of vegetables in order to make a judgement about their acceptability or unacceptability for human consumption.
Key Words:  chemical amendment, contamination, immobilisation, lettuce, metal, urban soil
Citation: Christophe, W., Christelle, P., Franck, M. and Francis, D. 2017. Impact of a phosphate amendment on the environmental availability and phytoavailability of Cd and Pb in moderately and highly carbonated kitchen garden soils. Pedosphere. 27(3): 588-605.
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