Pedosphere 27(3): 439--451, 2017
ISSN 1002-0160/CN 32-1315/P
©2017 Soil Science Society of China
Published by Elsevier B.V. and Science Press
Contamination of phthalate esters in vegetable agriculture and human cumulative risk assessment
CHEN Ning1,2, SHUAI Wenjuan1,2, HAO Xinmei3, ZHANG Huichun4, ZHOU Dongmei1,GAO Juan1
1Key Laboratory of Soil Environment and Pollution Remediation, Institute of Soil Science, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Nanjing 210008 (China)
2 University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China)
3 College of Water Resources and Civil Engineering, China Agricultural University, Beijing 100083 (China)
4 Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Temple University, PA 19122 (USA)
ABSTRACT
      Phthalate esters (PAEs), which can disturb human endocrine system, have been widely detected in vegetable greenhouse agriculture in China. To investigate the effects of environmental factors on PAEs in soils, pollution sources were identified, and the cumulative risks of PAEs to humans through vegetables in the diet were evaluated in this study. Ninety-eight vegetable samples were collected from 10 markets along with 128 vegetable and 111 soil samples from agricultural greenhouses and open field. All soil and vegetable samples were contaminated with PAEs, and the total concentrations of the 5 PAEs, including dimethyl phthalate (DMP), diethyl phthalate (DEP), di-iso-butyl phthalate (DiBP), di-n-butyl phthalate (DnBP), and di-2-ethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP), were in the ranges of 0.26--2.53 mg kg-1 for soils and 0.95--8.09 mg kg-1 for vegetables. Three components extracted from principle component analysis could explain 51.2%, 19.8%, and 15.3% of the total variance of the 5 PAEs in soils, which may represent three major sources of PAEs, i.e., wastewater irrigation, application of fertilizers and pesticides, and plastic film. Long-term greenhouse cultivation could accumulate DEHP in soils, and a higher soil FeO$_x$ content reduced the DnBP concentration. Based on a survey of vegetables in the diet, the hazard index of PAEs was $<$ 0.15 for individuals in different cities.The exposure of PAEs through vegetable intake was higher than the total exposure from other food stuffs, inhalation, and dermal absorption.More attention should be given to controlling PAEs in greenhouse vegetables.
Key Words:  average daily intake, dietary survey, environmental factors, greenhouse agriculture, hazard index
Citation: Chen, N., Shuai, W., Hao, X., Zhang, H., Zhou, D. and Gao, J. 2017. Contamination of phthalate esters in vegetable agriculture and human cumulative risk assessment. Pedosphere. 27(3): 439-451.
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