Pedosphere 27(2): 205--222, 2017
ISSN 1002-0160/CN 32-1315/P
©2017 Soil Science Society of China
Published by Elsevier B.V. and Science Press
Mycoremediation of potentially toxic trace elements---a biological tool for soil cleanup: A review
Amjad ALI1, GUO Di1, Amanullah MAHAR1, 2, WANG Ping1, SHEN Feng1, LI Ronghua1,ZHANG Zengqiang1
1College of Natural Resources and Environment, Northwest A&F University, Yangling 712100 (China)
2 Centre for Environmental Sciences, University of Sindh, Jamshoro 76080 (Pakistan)
Corresponding Author:zhangzq58@126.com, zqzhang@nwafu.edu.cn.
ABSTRACT
      Anthropogenic and geogenic activities release potentially toxic trace elements (PTEs) that impact human health and the environment. Increasing environmental pollution stresses the need for environmentally friendly remediation technologies.Physico-chemical treatments are effective, but are costly and generate secondary pollution on- or off-site.Phytoremediation is a biological treatment that provides positive results for PTE eradication with few limitations. Mycoremediation, a type of bioremediation to use macrofungi (mushrooms) for PTE extraction from polluted sites, is the best option for soil cleanup.This review highlights the scope, mechanisms, and potentials of mycoremediation.Mushrooms produce a variety of extracellular enzymes that degrade polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), pesticides, dyes, and petroleum hydrocarbons into simpler compounds.Cadmium (Cd), lead (Pb), mercury (Hg), chromium (Cr), copper (Cu), zinc (Zn), and iron (Fe) have been effectively extracted by Phellinus badius, Amanita spissa, Lactarius piperatus, Suillus grevillei, Agaricus bisporous, Tricholoma terreum, and Fomes fomentarius, respectively.Mycoremediation is affected by environmental and genetic factors, such as pH, substrate, mycelium age, enzyme type, and ecology. The bioaccumulation factor (BAF) can make clear the effectiveness of a mushroom for the extraction of PTEs from the substrate.Higher BAF values of Cd (4.34), Pb (2.75), Cu (9), and Hg (95) have been reported for Amanita muscaria, Hypholoma fasciculare, Russula foetens, and Boletus pinophilus, respectively, demonstrating their effectiveness and suitability for mycoremediation of PTEs.
Key Words:  bioaccumulation factor, bioremediation, extracellular enzymes, macrofungus, phytoremediation, pollution
Citation: Amjad, A., Guo, D., Amanullah, M., Wang, P., Shen, F., Li, R. and Zhang, Z. 2017. Mycoremediation of potentially toxic trace elements---a biological tool for soil cleanup: A review. Pedosphere. 27(2): 205-222.
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