Pedosphere 26(3): 310--325, 2016
ISSN 1002-0160/CN 32-1315/P
©2016 Soil Science Society of China
Published by Elsevier B.V. and Science Press
Phosphorus use efficiency of bio-based fertilizers: Bioavailability and fractionation
1Laboratory for Analytical and Applied Ecochemistry, Faculty of Bioscience Engineering, Ghent University, Ghent 9000 (Belgium)
2modelEAU, Département de génie civil et de génie des eaux, Faculté de Sciences et de Génie, Université Laval, Québec, QC G1V 0A6 (Canada)
      Although to date some technologies producing bio-based phosphorus (P) fertilizers have been proposed and implemented, the efficient use of the recovered products is still limited due to legislative constraints and lack of insights in the P release with time and in the corresponding mechanisms. The aim of this work was to evaluate the fertilizer performance in terms of P release and use efficiency of recovered struvite, FePO4-sludge, digestate, and animal manure as compared to fossil reserve-based mineral triple superphosphate (TSP). First, product physicochemical characteristics and P fractions in the context of European fertilizer legislation were assessed. Next, a controlled greenhouse experiment was set up to evaluate plant reactions as well as changes of P availability in a nutrient-rich sandy soil with high P status and a nutrient-poor Rheinsand soil with low P status. Soil P fractions were determined in the extracts with water, ammonium lactate and CaCl2, and in soil solution sampled with Rhizon soil moisture samplers. Based on all results, it is worth conducting long-term field trials to evaluate the P release effect of struvite and digestate as compared to animal manure and TSP on different soil types with varying P status. These products showed promise as sustainable substitutes for conventional P fertilizers and could contribute to a more efficient use of P in agriculture. A refined classification of P application standards/recommendations in terms of soil P status, soil texture, and fertilizer characteristics, next to the crop P demand, is recommended. Moreover, the additional use of Rhizon samplers for determination of direct available P, including dissolved organic P, is proposed for better understanding and categorization of different P fertilizers in environmental and fertilizer legislations.
Key Words:  chemical soil analysis, digestate, nutrient recovery, Rhizon samplers, struvite
Citation: Vaneeckhaute, C., Janda, J., Vanrolleghem, P. A., Tack, M. G. and Meers, E. 2016. Phosphorus use efficiency of bio-based fertilizers: Bioavailability and fractionation. Pedosphere. 26(3): 310-325.
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