Pedosphere 20(5): 545--556, 2010
ISSN 1002-0160/CN 32-1315/P
©2010 Soil Science Society of China
Published by Elsevier B.V. and Science Press
Fractionation of Zn, Cd and Pb in a tropical soil after nine-year sewage sludge applications
T. A. R. NOGUEIRA1, W. J. MELO2, I. M. FONSECA2, S. A. MARCUSSI2, G. M. P. MELO2 and M. O. MARQUES2
1 Department of Plant Nutrition, Center for Nuclear Energy in Agriculture, University of Sao Paulo, Av. Centenário, 303, Piracicaba, SP, 13400-970 (Brazil)
2 Department of Technology, Sao Paulo State University, Via de Acesso Prof. Paulo Donato Castellane, s/n., Jaboticabal, SP, 14884-900 (Brazil)
ABSTRACT
      A long-term field experiment was carried out in the experiment farm of the Sao Paulo State University, Brazil, to evaluate the phytoavailability of Zn, Cd and Pb in a Typic Eutrorthox soil treated with sewage sludge for nine consecutive years, using the sequential extraction and organic matter fractionation methods. During 2005-2006, maize (Zea mays L.) was used as test plants and the experimental design was in randomized complete blocks with four treatments and five replicates. The treatments consisted of four sewage sludge rates (in a dry basis) : 0.0 (control, with mineral fertilization), 45.0, 90.0 and 127.5 t ha-1, annually for nine years. Before maize sowing, the sewage sludge was manually applied to the soil and incorporated at 10 cm depth. Soil samples (0-20 cm layer) for Zn, Cd and Pb analysis were collected 60 days after sowing. The successive applications of sewage sludge to the soil did not affect heavy metal (Cd and Pb) fractions in the soil, with exception of Zn fractions. The Zn, Cd and Pb distributions in the soil were strongly associated with humin and residual fractions, which are characterized by stable chemical bonds. Zinc, Cd and Pb in the soil showed low phytoavailability after nine-year successive applications of sewage sludge to the soil.
Key Words:  heavy metals, humic substance, sequential extraction, Zea mays L.
Citation: Nogueira, A. R., Melo, W. J., Fonseca, I. M., Marcussi, S. A., Melo, M. P. and Marques, M. O. 2010. Fractionation of Zn, Cd and Pb in a tropical soil after nine-year sewage sludge applications. Pedosphere. 20(5): 545-556.
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