Pedosphere 19(4): 523--531, 2009
ISSN 1002-0160/CN 32-1315/P
©2009 Soil Science Society of China
Published by Elsevier B.V. and Science Press
Benzo[a]pyrene and phenanthrene in municipal sludge from the Yangtze River Delta, China
SHEN Rong-Yan1,2,3, LUO Yong-Ming1,3, FENG Sheng2, ZHANG Gang-Ya1, WU Long-Hua1, LI Zhen-Gao1, TENG Ying1 and P. CHRISTIE4
1 Institute of Soil Science, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Nanjing 210008 (China)
2 Department of Environment and Safety Engineering, Jiangsu Polytechnic University, Changzhou 213016 (China)
3 Graduate University of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China)
4 Department of Agricultural and Environmental Science, Queen's University Belfast, Newforge Lane, Belfast BT9 5PX (UK)
      To evaluate the contaminated conditions of benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P) and phenanthrene (PA) in sludge and to ascertain whether B[a]P limit for land application of sludge exists, the contents of B[a]P and PA in 46 sludge samples from 15 cities in the Yangtze River Delta area of China were determined using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) coupled with a fluorescence detector after ultrasonic extraction and silica gel cleanup. B[a]P contents ranged from non-detectable to 1.693 mg kg-1 dry weight (DW), averaged 0.402 mg kg-1 DW, and were < 1.0 mg kg-1 DW in most of the sludge samples. PA was found in all the sludge samples analyzed; its contents ranged between 0.028 and 1.355 mg kg-1 DW, with an average value of 0.298 mg kg-1 DW. Most of the sludge samples contained < 0.5 mg kg-1 DW PA. All 46 municipal sludge samples analyzed in this study showed B[a]P contents < 3.0 mg kg-1 DW, which is the limit value for sludge applied to agricultural lands in China. The contents and distributions of B[a]P and PA in municipal sludge were related to sludge types, sources and treatment technologies, along with the physical and chemical properties of these pollutants.
Key Words:  benzo[a]pyrene, municipal sludge, organic pollutants, phenanthrene, Yangtze River Delta
Citation: Shen, R. Y., Luo, Y. M., Feng, S., Zhang, G. Y., Wu, L. H., Li, Z. G., Teng, Y. and Christie, P. 2009. Benzo[a]pyrene and phenanthrene in municipal sludge from the Yangtze River Delta, China. Pedosphere. 19(4): 523-531.
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