Pedosphere 14(2): 177--185, 2004
ISSN 1002-0160/CN 32-1315/P
©2004 Soil Science Society of China
Published by Elsevier B.V. and Science Press
Heavy metals, phosphorus and some other elements in urban soils of Hangzhou city, China
ZHANG Ming-Kui and KE Zi-Xia
Department of Natural Resource Science, College of Natural Resource and Environmental Sciences, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310029 (China). E-mail:
      Health implications of inhaling and/or ingesting dust particles with high concentrations of heavy metals from urban soils are a subject of intense concern. Understanding the geochemistry of these metals is key to their effective management. Total concentrations of heavy metals, phosphorus (P) and 8 other elements from topsoil samples collected at 82 locations in Hangzhou City were measured to: a) assess their distribution in urban environments; and b) understand their differentiation as related to land use. Metal mobility was also studied using a three-step sequential chemical fractionation procedure. About 8.5%, 1.2%, 3.6%, 11.0% and 30.3% of the soil samples had Cd, Cr, Cu, Pb, and Zn concentrations, respectively, above their allowable limits for public and private green areas and residential use. However, in commercial and industrial areas, most samples had metal concentrations below their allowable limits. Statistical analyses revealed that the 16 measured elements in urban soils could be divided into four groups based on natural or anthropic sources using a hierarchical cluster analysis. Additionally, Cu, Pb, and P showed similar spatial distributions with significant pollution in commercial zones, suggesting vehicle traffic or commercial activities as dominant pollutant sources. Also, Cd, Co, Cr, Ni, Zn, Mn and Fe had the highest concentrations in industrial locations, signifying that industrial activities were the main sources of these seven metals. Moreover, the data highlighted land-use as a major influence on heavy metal concentrations and forms found in topsoils with large proportions of soil Cd, Co, Cr, and Ni found in residual fractions and soil Cu, Pb and Zn mainly as extractable fractions.
Key Words:  anthropogenic pollution, heavy metals, phosphorus, urban soils
Citation: Zhang, M. K. and Ke, Z. X. 2004. Heavy metals, phosphorus and some other elements in urban soils of Hangzhou city, China. Pedosphere. 14(2): 177-185.
View Full Text

Copyright © 2023 Editorial Committee of PEDOSPHERE. All rights reserved.
Address: P. O. Box 821, 71 East Beijing Road, Nanjing 210008, China    E-mail:
Technical support: Beijing E-Tiller Co.,Ltd.