Pedosphere 33(3): 448--462, 2023
ISSN 1002-0160/CN 32-1315/P
©2023 Soil Science Society of China
Published by Elsevier B.V. and Science Press
Carbon and water footprints of major crop production in India
Amaresh Kumar NAYAK1, Rahul TRIPATHI1, Manish DEBNATH1, Chinmaya Kumar SWAIN1, Biswaranjan DHAL1, Shanmugam VIJAYKUMAR1, Anshuman Debasis NAYAK1, Sangita MOHANTY1, Mohammad SHAHID1, Anjani KUMAR1, Manoj RAJAK1, Khitish Chandra MOHARANA1, Dibyendu CHATTERJEE1, Susmita MUNDA1, Pravat GURU1, Rubina KHANAM1, Banwari LAL2, Priyanka GAUTAM3, Suschismita PATTANAIK1, Arvind Kumar SHUKLA4, Nuala FITTON5, Pete SMITH5, Himanshu PATHAK1
1 Indian Council of Agriculture Research(ICAR)-National Rice Research Institute, Cuttack 753006(India);
2 ICAR-Central Sheep and Wool Research Institute, Avikanagar 304501(India);
3 ICAR-National Research Centre on Camel, Bikaner 304001(India);
4 ICAR-Indian Institute of Soil Science, Bhopal 462038(India);
5 Institute of Biological and Environmental Sciences, University of Aberdeen, 23 St Machar Drive, Aberdeen AB243 UU(UK)
Corresponding Author:Amaresh Kumar NAYAK
      Scarcity of water and emission of greenhouse gases (GHGs) are the two key environmental issues affecting crop production in India. Reducing the carbon footprint (CF) and water footprint (WF) of crop production can help to mitigate the environmental hazards that stem from GHG emissions and water scarcity. The CFs and WFs of three major cereal crops, rice, wheat, and maize, were estimated for the year 2014 under the environmental conditions in India, based on national statistics and other data sources. Total CFs (TCFs) of rice, wheat, and maize in India were estimated to be 2.44, 1.27, and 0.80 t CO2 equivalent ha-1, respectively, and product WFs for rice, wheat, and maize in India were 3.52, 1.59, and 2.06 m3 kg-1, respectively. Blue WF was found to be the highest in West India for rice and in South India for both wheat and maize, with the highest irrigation water use in these regions. There was a positive correlation between TCF and total WF, and hence mitigation of both was possibly simultaneous in various regions in India. Potential measures for mitigating GHG emissions and optimizing water use for rice, wheat, and maize production in India are recommended in this paper.
Key Words:  cereal crop,crop planning,green water footprint,greenhouse gas emission,water productivity,water use
Citation: Nayak A K, Tripathi R, Debnath M, Swain C K, Dhal B, Vijaykumar S, Nayak A D, Mohanty S, Shahid M, Kumar A, Rajak M, Moharana K C, Chatterjee D, Munda S, Guru P, Khanam R, Lal B, Gautam P, Pattanaik S, Shukla A K, Fitton N, Smith P, Pathak H. 2023. Carbon and water footprints of major crop production in India. Pedosphere. 33(3): 448-462.
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