Pedosphere 28(6): 833--847, 2018
ISSN 1002-0160/CN 32-1315/P
©2018 Soil Science Society of China
Published by Elsevier B.V. and Science Press
Environmental fate of petroleum hydrocarbons in soil: Review of multiphase transport, mass transfer, and natural attenuation processes
María BALSEIRO-ROMERO1, Carmen MONTERROSO2, Juan J. CASARES1
1Department of Chemical Engineering, Centre for Research in Environmental Technologies(CRETUS), Universidade de Santiago de Compostela, Santiago de Compostela 15782(Spain);
2Department of Soil Science and Agricultural Chemistry, Centre for Research in Environmental Technologies(CRETUS), Universidade de Santiago de Compostela, Santiago de Compostela 15782(Spain)
Corresponding Author:María BALSEIRO-ROMERO
ABSTRACT
      The increasing use of petroleum-derived fuels over the last few decades has subsequently augmented the risk of spills in the environment. Soil pollution with petroleum hydrocarbons (principally caused by leaks in pipelines and underground storage tanks) is one of the major sources of soil degradation. Once in soil, fuel hydrocarbons suffer from a wide variety of multiphase processes including transport (advection, diffusion, and dispersion) among and within phases (aqueous and non-aqueous liquid, gas, and soil solids), mass transfer among phases (volatilization, sorption, and solution), and other natural attenuation processes, such as biodegradation and plant uptake and metabolism. This review identifies and describes the major processes occurring in soil that have a significant influence on the environmental fate of petroleum hydrocarbons. The definition of the processes involved in pollutant migration and distribution in soil and the formulation of adequate equations using accurate parameters (e.g., diffusion coefficients, velocity of advective flows, and mass transfer coefficients) will allow prediction of the final fate of soil pollutants. In addition to transport and mass transfer processes, which are more widely studied, the incorporation of attenuation mechanisms driven by microorganisms and plants is essential to predict the final concentration of the pollutants in the whole multiphase scenario. This work underlines the importance of the determination of accurate parameters through the performance of laboratory and/or field-scale experiments to develop precise pollutant migration models.
Key Words:  degradation,fuel-derived pollutants,modelling,multiphase,non-aqueous phase liquid,soil pollution,soil processes,sorption
Citation: Balseiro-Romero M, Monterroso C, Casares J J. 2018. Environmental fate of petroleum hydrocarbons in soil:Review of multiphase transport, mass transfer, and natural attenuation processes. Pedosphere. 28(6):833-847.
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