Pedosphere 25(4): 555--568, 2015
ISSN 1002-0160/CN 32-1315/P
©2015 Soil Science Society of China
Published by Elsevier B.V. and Science Press
Immobilization of lead and cadmium in contaminated soil using amendments: A review
A. MAHAR1, 2, WANG Ping1, LI Rong-Hua1 and ZHANG Zeng-Qiang1
1College of Natural Resources and Environment, Northwest A&F University, Yangling, Shannxi 712100 (China)
2Centre for Environmental Sciences, University of Sindh, Jamshoro 76080 (Pakistan)
      Since the inception of industrial revolution, metal refining plants using pyrometallurgical processes have generated the prodigious emissions of lead (Pb) and cadmium (Cd). As the core target of such pollutants, a large number of soils are nowadays contaminated over widespread areas, posing a great threat to public health worldwide. Unlike organic pollutants, Pb and Cd do not undergo chemical or microbial breakdown and stay likely in site for longer duration after their release. Immobilization is an in-situ remediation technique that uses cost-effective soil amendments to reduce Pb and Cd availability in the contaminated soils. The Pb and Cd contamination in the soil environment is reviewed with focus on source enrichment, speciation and associated health risks, and immobilization options using various soil amendments. Commonly applied and emerging cost-effective soil amendments for Pb and Cd immobilization include phosphate compounds, liming, animal manure, biosolids, metal oxides, and biochar. These immobilizing agents could reduce the transfer of metal pollutants or residues to food web (plant uptake and leaching to subsurface water) and their long-term sustainability in heavy metal fixation needs further assessment.
Key Words:  bioavailability, biochar biosolids, heavy metal, public health, remediation, soil extraction
Citation: Mahar, A., Wang, P., Li, R. H. and Zhang, Z. Q. 2015. Immobilization of lead and cadmium in contaminated soil using amendments: A review. Pedosphere. 25(4): 555-568.
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